Share/Bookmark

Raven Painting (Texas bound ...

Texas City Disaster

Author: sdsv

Ships

The Grandcamp was a recently re-activated 437-foot-long (133 m) Liberty ship. Originally christened the SS Benjamin R. Curtis in Los Angeles in 1942, the ship served in the Pacific theatre and was mothballed in Philadelphia after World War II. In a Cold War gesture, the ship was assigned to the French Line to assist in the rebuilding of Europe. Along with ammonium nitrate very common cargo on the high seast was carrying small arms ammunition, machinery, and on the deck bales of sisal twine. The SS High Flyer was another ship in the harbor, about 600 feet (200 m) away from the SS Grandcamp. The High Flyer contained an additional 961 tons of ammonium nitrate and 3,600,000 pounds (1,800 tons) of sulfur. The ammonium nitrate in the two ships and in the adjacent warehouse was fertilizer on its way to farmers in Europe. The Grandcamp had arrived from Houston, Texas, where the port authority did not permit loading of ammonium nitrate.

Explosions

The 32.5% ammonium nitrate, used as fertilizer and in high explosives, was manufactured in Nebraska and Iowa and shipped to Texas City by rail before being loaded on the Grandcamp.

It was manufactured in a patented explosives process, mixed with clay, petrolatum, rosin and paraffin to avoid moisture caking. It was also packaged in paper sacks, then transported and stored at temperatures that increased its chemical activity. Longshoremen reported the bags were warm to the touch prior to loading.

Around 08:10, smoke was spotted in the cargo hold of the Grandcamp. Attempts at control failed as a red glow returned after each effort.

Shortly before 9:00 AM, the Captain ordered his men to steam the hold, a firefighting method where steam is piped in to put out fires in the hope of preserving the cargo. Meanwhile, the fire had attracted a crowd of spectators along the shoreline, who believed they were a safe distance away. Spectators noted that the water around the ship was already boiling from the heat, an indication of runaway chemical reactions. The cargo hold and deck began to bulge as the forces increased inside.

At 09:12, the ammonium nitrate reached an explosive threshold and the vessel then detonated, causing great destruction and damage throughout the port. The tremendous blast sent a 15-foot (4.5 m) wave that was detectable over nearly 100 miles (160 km) of the Texas shoreline. The blast leveled nearly 1,000 buildings on land. The Grandcamp explosion destroyed the Monsanto Chemical Company plant and resulted in ignition of refineries and chemical tanks on the waterfront. Falling bales of burning twine added to the damage while the Grandcamp’s anchor was hurled across the city. Sightseeing airplanes flying nearby had their wings sheared off , forcing them out of the sky. Ten miles away, people in Galveston were forced to their knees; windows were shattered in Houston, Texas, 40 miles (60 km) away. People felt the shock 250 miles (400 km) away in Louisiana. The explosion blew almost 6,350 tons of the ship’s steel into the air, some at supersonic speed. Official casualty estimates came to a total of 567, but many victims were burned to ashes or literally blown to bits, and the official total is believed to be an underestimate. The entire volunteer fire department of Texas City was killed in the initial explosion, and with the fires raging, first responders from other areas were initially unable to reach the site of the disaster.

The first explosion ignited ammonium nitrate cargo in the High Flyer. The crews spent hours attempting to cut the High Flyer free from its anchor and other obstacles, but without success. After smoke had been pouring out of its hold for over five hours, and about fifteen hours after the explosions aboard the Grandcamp, the High Flyer blew up demolishing the nearby SS Wilson B. Keene, killing at least two more people and increasing the damage to the port and other ships with more shrapnel and fire.

Scale of the disaster

One of Grandcamp’s anchors in Texas City Memorial Park

The Texas City Disaster is generally considered the worst industrial accident in American history. Witnesses compared the scene to the fairly recent images of the 1943 Air Raid on Bari and the much larger devastation at Nagasaki. The official death toll was 581. Of the dead, 405 were identified and 63 have never been identified. These 63 were placed in a memorial cemetery in the north part of Texas City near Moses Lake. A remaining 113 people were classified as missing, for no identifiable parts were ever found. This figure includes firefighters who were aboard Grandcamp when it exploded. There is some speculation that there may have been hundreds more killed but uncounted, including visiting seamen, non-census laborers and their families, and an untold number of travelers. However, there were some survivors as close as 70 feet (21 m) from the dock. The victims’ bodies quickly filled the local morgue, and several bodies were laid out in the local high school’s gymnasium for identification by loved ones.

Over 5,000 people were injured, with 1,784 admitted to twenty-one area hospitals. More than 500 homes were destroyed and hundreds damaged, leaving 2,000 homeless. The seaport was destroyed and many businesses were flattened or burned. Over 1,100 vehicles were damaged and 362 freight cars were obliteratedhe property damage was estimated at 0 million.

A 2 ton anchor of Grandcamp was hurled 1.62 miles (2.61 km) and found in a 10-foot (3 m) crater. It now rests in a memorial park. The other main 5 ton anchor was hurled 1/2 mile (800 m) to the entrance of the Texas City Dike, and rests on a Texas shaped memorial at the entrance. Burning wreckage ignited everything within miles, including dozens of oil storage tanks and chemical tanks. The nearby city of Galveston, Texas, was covered with an oily fog which left deposits over every exposed outdoor surface.

Firefighting casualties

Firefighters Memorial

Some of the deaths and damage in Texas City were due to the destruction and subsequent burning of several chemical plants (including Monsanto and Union Carbide), oil storage, and other facilities near the explosions. Twenty-seven of the twenty-eight members of Texas City’s volunteer fire department and three members of the Texas City Heights Volunteer Fire Department were killed after an attempt to extinguish the fire on the first ship in what was one of the worst 20th century firefighter tragedies. More firefighters died at one time than had ever died in any previous fire in the nation.[citation needed] One firefighter, Fred Dowdy, who had not responded to the initial call, coordinated other firefighters arriving from communities up to 60 miles (100 km) away. Eventually two hundred firefighters arrived, from as far away as Los Angeles. Fires resulting from the cataclysmic events were still burning a week after the disaster, and the process of body recovery took nearly a month. All four fire engines of Texas City were twisted and burned hulks.

A positive result of the Texas City disaster was widespread disaster response planning to help organize plant, local, and regional responses to emergencies.

Reactions and rebuilding

The disaster gained attention from the national media. Offers of assistance came in from all over the country. Several funds were established to handle donations, particularly the Texas City Relief Fund, created by the city’s mayor Curtis Trahan. One of the largest fundraising efforts for the city and the victims of the disaster was organized by Sam Maceo, one of the two brothers who ran organized crime in Galveston at the time. Maceo organized a large-scale benefit on the island featuring some of the most famous entertainers of the time including Phil Harris, Frank Sinatra, and Ann Sheridan. In the end the Texas City Relief Fund raised more than million (.1 million in today’s terms). Payouts for fire insurance claims reached nearly million (.7 million in today’s terms).

Within days after the disaster, major companies that had lost facilities in the explosions announced plans to rebuild in Texas City and even expand their operations. Some companies implemented policies of retaining all of the hourly workers who had previously worked at destroyed facilities with plans to utilize them in the rebuilding. In all the expenditures for industrial reconstruction were estimated to have been approximately 0 million (4 million in today’s terms).

Legal case

Hundred of lawsuits were filed as a result of the disaster. Many of them were combined into Elizabeth Dalehite, et al. v. United States, under the recently enacted Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA). On April 13, 1950, the district court found the United States responsible for a litany of negligent acts of omission and commission by 168 named agencies and their representatives in the manufacture, packaging, and labeling of ammonium nitrate, further compounded by errors in transport, storage, loading, fire prevention, and fire suppression, all of which led to the explosions and the subsequent carnage. On June 10, 1952, the U.S. Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals overturned this decision, finding that the United States maintained the right to exercise its own “discretion” in vital national matters. The Supreme Court affirmed that decision (346 U.S. 15, June 8, 1953), in a 4-to-3 opinion, noting that the district court had no jurisdiction under the federal statute to find the U.S. government liable for “negligent planning decisions” which were properly delegated to various departments and agencies. In short, the FTCA clearly exempts “failure to exercise or perform a discretionary function or duty”, and the Court found that all of the alleged acts in this case were discretionary in nature.

In a stinging dissent, three justices argued that, under the FTCA, “Congress has defined the tort liability of the Government as analogous to that of a private person,” i.e., when carrying out duties unrelated to governing. In this case, “a policy adopted in the exercise of an immune discretion was carried out carelessly by those in charge of detail,” and that a private person would certainly be held liable for such acts. It should also be noted that a private person is held to a higher standard of care when carrying out “inherently dangerous” acts such as transportation and storage of explosives.

According to Melvin Belli in his book Ready for the Plaintiff! (1956), Congress acted to provide some compensation after the courts refused to do so. The Dalehite decision was eventually “appealed” to Congress, where relief was granted by means of private legislation (Public Law 378, 69 Stat. 707 (1955)). When the last claim had been processed in 1957, 1,394 awards, totaling nearly ,000,000, had been made.

See also

Houston portal

Ammonium nitrate disasters

Halifax Explosion

Notes

^ a b Texas City, Texas Disaster

^ Stephens (1997), p.100.

^ “Pyrotechnics, Explosives, & Fireworks”. Greg Goebel / Advameg, Inc.. http://www.faqs.org/docs/air/ttpyro.html. 

^ No. 1138: The Texas City Disaster

^ This Day in History: Fertilizer explosion kills 581 in Texas

^ a b c d Stephens (1997), p. 104105.

^ McComb, David G. (2000). Galveston: a history and a guide. Austin: University of Texas Press. p. 176. ISBN 0292720491. http://books.google.com/books?id=mecTAAAAYAAJ. 

Minutaglio, Bill (2003). City on Fire: The Explosion That Devastated a Texas Town and Ignited a Historic Legal Battle. Harper. p. 201. ISBN 978-0060959913. http://books.google.com/books?id=gO127UoMcmQC. 

^ Belli (1965), pp. 8385

References

Belli, melvin (1965). Ready for the Plaintiff!. Popular Library. http://books.google.com/books?id=xccJQAAACAAJ. 

Minutaglio, Bill (2003). City on Fire. Harper Collins Publishers. ISBN 0-06-018541-4. 

Stephens, Hugh W. (1997). The Texas City disaster, 1947. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. http://books.google.com/books?id=GCK4l6YaiwcC. 

Texas City, Texas, Disaster, April 16, 17, 1947. Dallas: Fire Prevention and Engineering Bureau of Texas; The National Board of Fire Underwriters. 1947. http://www.local1259iaff.org/report.htm. 

Coordinates: 292239 945329 / 29.3775N 94.89139W / 29.3775; -94.89139

External links

1947 Texas City Disaster Web Exhibit from the Moore Memorial Public Library in Texas City

Headline, NY Times, April 17, 1947, Blasts and Fires Wreck Texas City of 15,000; 300 to 1,200 Dead; Thousands Hurt, Homeless; Wide Coast Area Rocked, Damage in Millions

Texas City Disaster, 1947 photographs from the Moore Memorial Public Library, hosted by the Portal to Texas History

Handbook of Texas entry

The Explosion 50 Years Later, Texas City Still Remembers

Details and photos of local destruction

Supreme Court opinion, Dalehite v. U.S., 1953

Report of the US Coast Guard

Joint report of Fire Preventions and Engineering Board of Texas & the National Board of Fire Underwriters

v  d  e

Galveston Bay Area

History

Large cities

Baytown  Pasadena

Other cities

Anahuac  Beach City  Clear Lake Shores  Dickinson  El Lago  Deer Park  Friendswood  Kemah  La Marque  La Porte  League City  Nassau Bay  Morgan’s Point  Seabrook  Shoreacres  Taylor Lake Village  Texas City  Webster

CDPs and non-

municipalities

Bacliff  Bayview  Clear Lake City (part of Houston/Pasadena)  Double Bayou  San Leon  Smith Point

Counties

Chambers  Galveston  Harris

Subregions

Pasadena/Baytown  Clear Lake Area  Texas City/La Marque  Chambers County

Bodies of

water

Armand Bayou  Cedar Bayou  Clear Creek  Clear Lake  Dickinson Bay  Galveston Bay  Lake Anahuac  Moses Lake  San Jacinto River  Taylor Lake  Trinity Bay  Trinity River

Major ports

Barbours Cut  Bayport  Texas City

Nature

preserves

Anahuac National Wildlife Refuge  Armand Bayou Nature Center  Baytown Nature Center  Pine Gully Park  Texas City Prairie Preserve

v  d  e

Houstonugar Landaytown

Metropolitan Area

Counties

Austin  Brazoria  Chambers  Fort Bend  Galveston  Harris  Liberty  Montgomery  San Jacinto  Waller

“Principal” cities

Houston    Sugar Land    Baytown    Galveston    Conroe

Other cities

Alvin  Angleton  Bellaire  Clute  Deer Park  Dickinson  Freeport  Friendswood  Galena Park  Humble  Jacinto City  Katy  Lake Jackson  La Marque  La Porte  League City  Missouri City  Pasadena  Pearland  Richmond  Rosenberg  South Houston  Stafford  Texas City  West University Place

For a complete listing, see list of cities and towns in Houstonugar Landaytown MSA

Unincorporated areas

Atascocita  Channelview  Cloverleaf  Crosby  Cypress  Fresno  Hockley  Klein  Port Bolivar  Spring  The Woodlands

Bodies of water

Buffalo Bayou  Galveston Bay  Gulf Intracoastal Waterway  Houston Ship Channel  San Jacinto River  Trinity River  Lake Houston  Lake Conroe

v  d  e

     History of Texas     

By period

French Texas  Spanish Texas  Mexican Texas  Republic of Texas  Texas in the Civil War  State of Texas

By topic

Annexation  Indian Wars  Jewish history  Oil Boom  Revolution  Slavery  Texas Rangers

By city

Amarillo  Austin  Brownsville  Corpus Christi  Dallas  El Paso  Fort Worth  Galveston  Houston  Laredo  Lubbock  San Antonio

Categories: Accidental explosion disasters in the United States | 1947 disasters | 1947 in the United States | Disasters in Texas | Fires in Texas | Law of negligence | 20th-century explosionsHidden categories: Articles that may contain original research from September 2007 | All articles that may contain original research | Articles lacking in-text citations from January 2010 | All articles lacking in-text citations | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from April 2008

Article Source: http://www.articlesbase.com/fundraising-articles/texas-city-disaster-3180361.html

About the Author

I am an expert from China Chemicals Products, usually analyzes all kind of industries situation, such as amber emergency lights , police emergency lighting.